Wilmington (also known as "Wilmington") is a city in the east of the United States, the largest city in the state of Delaware. The population within the city borders is about 73 thousand. (2000), with suburbs - up to 500,000. (two-thirds of the total population). The city is part of the Philadelphia agglomeration.
|History and geography|
|Previous names||Fort Christina (up to 1655), Altena (up to 1731), Willington (up to 1739)|
|Center Height||28 m|
|Time zone||UTC-5:00, summer UTC-4:00|
|Population||72,100 people (2004)|
|Phone code||+1 302|
|Postal Indexes||19801-19810, 19850, 19880, 1984-19887, 19889-19899|
|Media files on Wikimedia Commons|
Wilmington is located on the right bank of the Delaware River, near the influx of the rivers Christine and Brandiuain (between which is the central part of the city). Wilmington is located in the northern "throat" of the Delmarwa Peninsula, which Delaware shares with Maryland and Virginia.
Due to the proximity of the ocean, the climate in the city is mild: the average temperature in July is 76.6°F (24.8°C) with an average maximum of 86°F (30°C), the average temperature in January is 31.5°F (-0.3°C) with an average minimum of 23.7°F (F (4 .6 °C). The average annual precipitation is 1,086 mm, which is relatively uniform throughout the year.
In the middle of the 17th century, the first white colonists to begin the development of the territory were immigrants from Sweden, Sweden and Finland, and the flag of the city, founded in 1638, resembles Swedish. In 1655, the Dutch began to displace them, but in 1664 British domination was established. In the middle of the next century, the city was renamed from Willington (by the name of the founder) to Wilmington (after Earl Wilmington, the British aristocrat). At the end of the 18th century, the city experienced an influx of immigrants from France fleeing the French Revolution, one of whom was the founder of DuPont, Irene du Pona de Nemour.
Industry began to develop in the city from the 1740s. In the early nineteenth century Wilmington was already a prominent center of shipbuilding (shipyards located southeast of the city center) and gunpowder production (DuPont plants along the banks of the River Brendivain). During the Civil War and the subsequent colonization of the West, the city's industry flourished. The enterprises of the city supplied powder, leather ammunition, tents, wagons, transport ships, etc. to the army of the North. In 1868 Wilmington shipyards produced more ships than all other American shipbuilding companies combined.
The development of the city's industry has caused an influx of population and the emergence of a stratum of wealthy people. While Wilmington's population doubled in the first half of the 19th century (from 10 to 21,000 people), from 1860 to 1920, it grew five-fold (to 110,000). Due to the construction of the mansions of the trade and industrial elite the city has grown considerably in the western direction. In 1864, public transport (horse) was introduced in the city, at the end of the XIX century, the parks of Rockford and Brandiuine were organized for the rest of the city. From 1888 to 1940 there was a tram in Wilmington.
During the First and Second World Wars, DuPont and its detachment in 1912, by the decision of the antimonopoly authorities, Hercules acted as suppliers of explosives to the American army. The work of shipbuilding enterprises was intensified. In the first half of the 20th century, in Wilmington, like many other American cities in the northeast of the US, a significant number of emigrants from European countries, especially Poland and Italy, communities of their descendants exist in the city and now.
In the postwar years, the city underwent fundamental changes. With rising incomes and reduced defense orders, Wilmington's economy was built on services rather than industry. In 1951 the bridge across the river was opened. Delaware, named Memorial Bridge. In the late 1960s, Federal Highway 95 (stretched across the entire eastern coast of the United States) passed through the city, which improved transport links with Philadelphia and began building the northern suburbs. Several blocks of old houses were demolished to build the route. The central part of the city, which was transformed from a residential area into a business center, was also reconstructed.
In the 1960's, there was an intense sub-urbanization and the city's population began to decline within the administrative boundaries. In 1968, after the murder of Martin Luther King in Wilmington, as in many other US cities, African-American riots broke out, with National Guard units deployed to suppress the city. The turmoil has further driven the middle class into the suburbs, reducing Wilmington's population to 70,000 within the administrative boundaries, and remains so far.
In the 1980-90s, the financial services sector was actively developing in the city, and a number of American and international corporations opened their offices there. The industrial enterprises in the city (including shipyards) were demolished, and in their place the creation of objects of entertainment industry, shopping complexes began.
The historical part of the city was located between the rivers Brendivain and Christine, and was drawn to a more full-fledged Christine, where the first Swedish colony was founded. Later, however, it turned out that Christine was too new to build water-powered industries, and Wilmington's industry developed mainly along the banks of the Brandyvain River in the 18th and 19th centuries. A road was laid between the old settlement center and the new industrial enterprises, from which the city's two central streets formed (Market Street and King street). Now, however, along them are mainly government offices, restaurants, shops and entertainment establishments.
As Philadelphia's influence grew, the city's center "migrated" to the north and now lies south of the River Brendivine, where Market st. intersects with the 11th st. and descends to the northwest Delaware av. Since the beginning of the 20th century, and especially since the 1930s, the business center of the city with its characteristic multi-story building has been formed around Rodney sq.. It is home to the offices of the largest Wilmington-based companies, major hotels (Sheraton and Hotel DuPont) and a host of entertainment facilities. Thus, Wilmington's center is in the form of an asymmetrical, northward, wedge that occupies all the space between the Brandivain and Christine rivers.
The rest of the city is a small-story private building, organized in the streets of regular planning. At the same time, the city's space is scattered into two equal parts of the highway No. 95, and the business center of the city is to the east of it. The western part of the city once had ethnic neighborhoods of European migrants (primarily Italians and Irish). There were no multi-apartment buildings in Wilmington until recently, but in the mid-2000s the The Residences at Christina Landing, consisting of two 20-story towers, was built in the south of the city (on the right bank of the Christine River). The residential complex was built opposite the riverbank of the Kristin River, where the development of the city, which is now a popular place of leisure, began.
In the northern part of Wilmington and beyond, along the River Brendivain and the road to Philadelphia there is a parking complex, a number of built cottages of suburbs and various recreational facilities. The industrial and warehouse area of Wilmington is its eastern periphery, right up to the Delaware River.
Wilmington's population within the city's administrative boundaries is about 75,000, with suburbs (Newcastle County) up to 500,000. Although three-quarters of the population of Delaware is white, in Wilmington, as in many other cities in the East of the United States, the majority of the population of the city itself (excluding suburbs, see White#In the United States) is African-Americans, according to the 2000 census their share in the population is 56%. Hispanics now make up about 10% of the population, with half of them born outside the US. The rest of the population is white, mostly descended from long-standing waves of European immigration. During the 2000 census, the responses to the question on ancestral origin were as follows: Irish (9%), Italians (6%), Germans (5%), British (4%), Poles (4%). Wilmington has communities of descendants of emigrants from different countries and ethnic festivals.
Wilmington's social problems are also typical of cities in the South-East of the United States, and are mainly related to the African-American population. One out of every five city dwellers and one in six families live below the poverty line, with high crime rates (especially serious crimes, a record 27 homicides in 2010), drug addiction, and HIV. In the city, one of the highest rates of HIV infection in the United States, the carriers of the virus are mostly young people who use drugs. The city authorities are launching various programs to improve the social situation in Wilmington.
In Wilmington are the headquarters of chemical companies DuPont and Hercules, a number of representative offices of transnational financial corporations. In 1981, the State of Delaware passed a law abolishing restrictions on consumer credit rates. This has attracted a number of credit card-related companies such as Bank of America, Chase Card Services and Barclays. ING Direct, the Dutch holding company, ING Groep N.V., is located in Wilmington. Here are the offices of a number of insurance companies.
In 1988, the Delaware Legislature passed a law requiring that at least 85% of the shares in a state-owned company must be bought immediately or purchased no earlier than three years later to acquire shares. Such protection against unfriendly takeovers has also boosted Wilmington's popularity as a place of business registration.
The state also abolished the sales tax in Delaware, contributing to the growth of the retail sector. In Wilmington there are two big molls (Concord and Christin), and a number of shopping complexes are located in the back of the state, the transit route to them passes through Wilmington.
There are no major industrial enterprises in the city itself, but there are some significant factories near Wilmington. For example, in the town of Claymont, north of the city is a special steel plant owned by the Russian company "Evraz" (built in the late 1980s), south-east of the city in the port of Delaware (by the name of the state) is located oil refinery company Valero . He and the large Sunoco refinery near Philadelphia are the main suppliers of Wilmington's gasoline stations. On the bank of the Delaware River to the north of the mouth of the Christine River is the plant of titanium dioxide DuPont, to the west of the city is located the assembly plant General Motors (built in 1947). Bob Marley worked for a while at this factory, where there are now more than 1,500 employees.
The distance from Wilmington to Philadelphia on highway No. 95 is about 30 km, thanks to which there are intensive daily population migrations between the two cities. On the highway, however, there is a significant transit flow, as it links all major cities along the US East Coast. The state authorities tried to solve this problem by building a wider bypass road in the eastern industrial part of the city (No. 495) in the late 1970s. However, the attempt to remove the transit traffic from Wilmington was not successful, and in 1982, Route 95 returned to its former place. Later, the city authorities rejected the idea of removing the transit federal highway from the city. To the south, to the depths of the Delaware Peninsula, there is a motorway of local importance, which leads to the state capital, Dover.
Railway transport in Wilmington played a major role until the mid-1950s. Subsequently, with the increase in car mobilization and the construction of motorways, its role was reduced, as highway No. 95 passed completely parallel to the traditional railway line along the coast. Trains Amtrak leaving from the only station in the city (located in the southern part of the center, at the r. Christine), links Wilmington to Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington and Boston. Freight traffic accounts for a large share of the railway traffic, with large warehouses located to the north-east and west of the city. In the east of Wilmington are Amtrak wagon repair shops.
To the east of the city, at Christine's mouth lies the seaport of Wilmington, which receives up to 400 vessels each year and transports imported goods by rail or road.
Intra-urban public transport appeared in Wilmington in 1864, it was a horse. In 1880 a tram was launched, in 1939-40 it was replaced with a trolley bus. The trolleybus movement in the city stopped in 1957 after the population left the center for suburban areas, demolished residential areas and built a business center on their site. Currently, intra-city transportation is carried out by 40 routes of the municipal bus. They connect the city with suburbs and some nearby major cities. In summer, flights to beaches in the south of the state take place.
To the southwest of the city is the airport of Newcastle (formerly Wilmington airport), however, like many other small airports, it is used only by corporate and sports aircraft, as well as as as a base of the National Guard. The closest airport to Wilmington with regular flights is Philadelphia International Airport.
Education and Science
Five universities (including Wilmington University and Delaware University) and four colleges are located in and close to the city. Wilmington hosts one of three global research centers of DuPont Corporation.
There are local basketball and baseball clubs in Wilmington, but they have not been very successful and have played in the regional leagues.
Culture and attractions
In the center of the city, which was reconstructed in the 1950s, there are practically no historical buildings. One of the few exceptions is the railway station building and several remaining quarters near the promenade of the river. Christine. Among the buildings of the business center is the headquarters of DuPont (the so-called. Brandywine building), which is an original architecture, and reconstructed in the 1950s, but preserved the original interior of the hall, Hotel DuPont, which was first opened in 1913. Built in the 1970s and 1990s, the multi-story office buildings are styled in a "glass cubic" style typical of most business districts of the world.
There are many churches in Wilmington, the oldest of which is the Church of the Holy Trinity, built by Swedish colonists in 1698, which has been continuously functioning (and has not been rebuilt) ever since. There are two Orthodox churches: in the name of Michael Archangel (Russian tradition, since 1915) and in the name of the Holy Trinity (Greek tradition, since 1934).
The Hagli Museum located north of the city, created in 1957 at the site of the old DuPont powder factory, is of interest. The museum tells about the history of the formation of the American industry and business of the company, the life of the workers of that time. On the territory of the museum there are buildings of powder mills and a mansion of the Duponov family of the second half of XIX century, the museum is combined with a garden-parking complex and a scientific library devoted to the history of the American industry.
There are four parks in the city (along the r. Brandiwaine, downstream of the Hagli Museum), a zoo open from May to October. In Wilmington there is an art museum, the objects of which are the works of American artists of XIX-XX centuries. Also in the city was filmed an American TV series, a teenage drama "Hill of One Tree".
One of the old quarters in the area 4th st.
Rodney Sq. The building of the credit fund (right) was built in 1930, the tower of the bank Mellon (left) - in 1965
- Sweden : Kalumar
- China : Ningbo
- Italy : Olevano sul Tusciano
- Nigeria : Osogbo
- United Kingdom : Watford (England)
- Germany : Fulda
Famous natives and residents
- Danny, Gideon (1830—1886) is an American artist.
- Sloan, Helen Farr (1911-2005) is an American philanthropist, educator and artist, the second wife of John Sloan.
- Delle Donn, Elena (born. 1989) - American basketball player.
- "The Great Encyclopedic Dictionary."
- [slovar.wikireading.ru/2698936 "The Great Soviet Encyclopedia."]
- IDcide - Local Information Data Server
- NY Times Death Notice
- About Wilmington in the past
- Jediah Morse . Wilmington // The American Gazetteer (neopr.). — Boston, Massachusetts: At the presses of S. Hall, and Thomas & Andrews.
- Charles P. Dare (1877), Wilmington, Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad guide book, OCLC 37266637, <https://archive.org/stream/philadelphiawilm00dare#page/66/mode/2up>
- Wilmington in the 20th century
- Carol Hoffecker: Corporate Capital: Wilmington in the Twentieth Century, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1983
- Wilmington in Wikimapia
- City Hall site
- About leisure in the city
- Wilmington Waterfront
- Tourist site
- Wilmington's story in photos
- The city's remarkable buildings